Nationalism in India
When the First World War broke out in Europe in 1919, it had far-reaching implications around the world. The notion of nationalism emerged in Europe in combination with the emergence of new states. It also had an influence on the thinking of the people of Europe. They gained an understanding of their identity and sense of belonging. New nationalist emblems and ideas created new relationships and redefined community borders. It may have been claimed to spark the war for India’s freedom and Nationalism in India has taken birth. The advent of the Satyagraha and Non-Cooperation movement sparked the spirit of Nationalism in India. On this page, we have given complete details about Nationalism in India. Read the whole article to get complete information.
Nationalism in India- World War I
Since World War I, we can trace the emergence of India’s national movement. Because Britishers colonised people in India and many other countries, including Vietnam, they had a common adversary, which brought them together to resist British control in India. During World War I, India as a British territory experienced several economic and political challenges. A huge sum of money was required to conduct war, which was obtained by imposing customs taxes and an income tax on Indians. Many regions of our country experienced food shortages and the development of the influenza pandemic, adding fuel to the fire in our battle against the colonial administration.
Nationalism in India: Satyagraha
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa and launched the Satyagraha campaign in January 1915. Satyagraha highlighted the importance of truth and the necessity to seek it. Nonviolence, according to Mahatma Gandhi, may win a struggle and unite all Indians. He travelled to Champaran, Bihar, to encourage peasants to fight the harsh plantation system in 1917. In the same year, he organised a satyagraha to help the peasants of Gujarat’s Kheda area. Mahatma Gandhi travelled to Ahmedabad in 1918 to organise a satyagraha movement among cotton mill employees.
Nationalism in India: The Rowllat Act
Despite the unanimous opposition of the Indians, the Rowlatt Act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. Gandhiji resolved to start a countrywide satyagraha in opposition to the Rowlatt Act. The horrific Jallianwalla Bagh event occurred when people were gathered to discuss the 1919 Act. Crowds rushed to the streets of north Indian towns as word of Jallianwalla Bagh spread across the area. The government reacted with harsh repression, attempting to humiliate and frighten the people. As violence erupted, Mahatma Gandhi ordered a halt to the movement. After the Jallianwala Bagh incident, Mahatma Gandhi was persuaded that in order to organise such a movement, Hindus and Muslims needed to be brought closer together. He accomplished this by bringing up the Khilafat issue.
Nationalism in India: Non-Cooperation Movement
Gandhiji saw that in order to establish a successful national mass movement, Hindus and Muslims needed to be united. Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, two Muslim brothers, founded the Khilafat movement. Gandhiji chose to begin the Non-cooperation campaign with the Khilafat movement during the Calcutta session of Congress in 1920. The concept of gathering Hindus and Muslims together to protect Khalifa’s temporal sovereignty was one of the most significant milestones in Nationalism in India. In the non-cooperation movement, Mahatma Gandhi ordered to boycott of foreign commodities, clothing, colleges, law courts, civil services, government titles, schools, and council elections. Members of Congress were first hesitant to boycott council elections, but later in the 1920 Congress session, they become part of the non-cooperation movement and boycott elections.
Nationalism in India: Civil Disobedience Movement
Gandhi’s well-known Dandi March sparked the Civil Disobedience Movement. On 12th March 1930, Gandhi and 78 other Ashram members set off on foot from the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmadabad for Dandi, a place 385 kilometres away from Ahmadabad. They reached Dandi on 6th April 1930. Mahatama Gandhi violated the salt law in that location. The Civil Disobedience Movement spread like fire after the violation of salt law by Gandhi across the country. Salt production spread across the country during the first phase of the civil disobedience movement, becoming a symbol of the people’s rejection of the government.
Features of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- People from rural areas and a large number of women register their participation in Civil Disobedience Movement
- This was the first countrywide movement since all previous ones had been restricted to cities only.
- This movement’s motto was nonviolence, and it did not give up despite repeated British oppression.
- The satyagraha campaign was headed by well-known women like Avantikabai Gokhale, Lilavati Munshi, Kasturba Gandhi, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, and Hansaben Mehta.
Causes of Civil Disobedience Movement
- A commission chaired by Motilal Nehru drafted a new constitution in Calcutta in 1928. In 1928, the INC asked that the British government recognise Nehru’s Report. The report’s major focus was to grant India Dominion Status. It threatened and blackmailed the British government if they did not accept the report, civil disobedience movement would be started.
- The Simon committee, established by the British government in 1927 to formalise India’s constitution and consisting exclusively of British members, was rejected by the Indian National Congress and other political and social organisations.
Drawbacks of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- Except in Nagpur, industrial employees were not in great numbers.
- Muslims were less inclined to engage as a result of communal leaders’ advice and the government’s efforts to promote communalism as a counter-nationalism strategy.
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Nationalism in India- FAQs
Q. What is Nationalism in India?
Nationalism in India is defined as a historical chronicle of our independence struggle against the colonial control of the British.
Q. What causes Nationalism in India?
The causes of Nationalism in India are Social And Religious Reform Movements, Exploitation Of Indian Economy, Growth Of Modern Press, Spread Of English Language, Western Education.
Q. Who is the father of Indian nationalism?
The father of Indian nationalism is Surendranath Banerjee.