Important Questions For Physical Education Class 12 with Answers

Important Questions for Class 12 Physical Education

Important Questions for Class 12 Physical Education: The Central Board of Secondary Education is all set to conduct CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Exam on the 2nd of June 2022, Thursday. The students must practice the Important Questions for Class 12 Physical Education with Answers given on this page to outperform in the final examination. Important Questions for Class 12 Physical Education with Answers will help students to score good marks in their board examination. Go through all the Important Questions for Class 12 Physical Education with Answers and bookmark this page to get CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Answer Key 2022.

Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions with Answers: Physical Education & Sports for CWSN 

Q.1 What do you understand by disability etiquettes?
Answer:
Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with people facing physical or mental disabilities.

Q.2 Write two ways to communicate with people suffering from cognitive impairments.
Answer:

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable:
  • Treat the person as an individual with talents and abilities

Q.2 What do you understand by physical activity?
Answer:
Physical activity means the movement of the body and use of energy Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are few examples of physical activity.

Q.3 Write any one advantage of physical activity.
Answer:
Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children. It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.

Q.4 Explain the strategy of positive behaviour in brief.
Answer:
The strategy of positive behaviour relates to showing a positive attitude and having healthy interactions with children with special needs. The teachers should prevent negative behaviours and encourage these children to participate in classroom activities.

Q.5 Define disability.
Answer:
Disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group.

Q.6 How disability is different from a disorder?
Answer:
Disability, whether it is physical or mental, is of permanent nature, but disorder can be temporary or permanent.

Q.7 Why the word ‘differently abled’ is used in place of disabled nowadays?
Answer:
Differently abled is used in place of disabled nowadays to give a more positive message and to avoid any kind of discrimination in the society.

Q.8 Give some examples of cognitive disability.
Answer:
Some examples of cognitive disability are children suffering from dyslexia, speech disorders, problems in solving mathematical calculations, short attention span, short memory and learning difficulties.

Q.9 What is ADHD?
Answer:
ADHD stands’ for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This brings behavioural changes and is normally seen is school going kids. Here the attention span is very short, kids are hyperactive and face trouble in focussing on a task.

Q.10 What do, you understand by disorder?
Answer:
A disorder is a blip in the usual functioning of a person. It disturbs the mental or physical health of a person.

Q.11 Explain the nature and causes of physical disability.
Answer:
Physical disability is physical in nature since it relates to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organiser:
The causes of physical disability are as follows

  • Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
  • Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
  • Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
  • The musculoskeletal disorder also causes disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.

Q.12 How does the Sensory Processing Disorder interfere with a child’s normal everyday functioning?
Answer:
The Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through senses. Children suffering from SPD are either under-reactive or over-reactive. They also lack motor skills, have short span of attention and delayed communication skills.

Due to these symptoms, children with SPD are not able to concentrate on studies or other activities. So the lack of sensory coordination with the brain in an appropriate manner interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.

Q.13 How environmental factors cause various types of disorders?
Answer:
Environmental factors are the external factors present where a child is living. Poor nutrition is a major environmental factor because the child does not get adequate food or nutrition and it leads to deficiencies. Exposure to toxins such as lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons creates many hormonal imbalances in the body. Similarly, parental neglect and sexual abuse at young age are other factors present in and around the child that create mental imbalances. In this way, environmental factors cause various types of disorders.

Q.14 Explain the strategy of inclusive classrooms. Why is it gaining popularity?
Answer:
Inclusive classrooms means including the children with special needs within the normal classrooms where other children study. It requires some changes in existing curriculum so that children with special needs get education along with other children. This concept is gaining popularity because it helps in changing the outlook of society. If all the children, get education in the same environment then they will understand, interact and cooperate with other. In this way, children with special needs get well accepted in society.

Q.15 Write the full form of ADHD and SPD. Elaborate on the causes that lead to the two disorders.
Answer:
The full form of ADHD-is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder arid SPD is Sensory Processing Disorder.
The causes leading to the two disorders are as follows ADHD Causes

  • Genes and Heredity ADHD can run in family due to certain genes and genetic mutations.
  • Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD symptoms.

SPD Causes

  • Children affected with SPD are said to have been understimulated during critical periods of development.
  • Genetic or heredity factors such as having a history of autism or SPD in the family.

Q.16 Explain ASD, ODD and OCD. Give two .causes of each.
Answer:
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a type of mental disorder which then changes the behaviours. It is a developmental disorder that affects normal brain functioning. People with ASD have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, flipping objects etc.

Causes of ASD

  • It can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
  • It can also come through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a behaviour disorder that usually takes place in early teens. ODD is characterised by irritable mood, anger, revenge, arguments, disobeying, talking back and mood swings. Teenagers going through ODD face a lot of behavioural problems.

Causes of ODD

  1. Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD. ,
  2. Environment Problems with parenting that may involve lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also causes ODD.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a type of mental disorder that takes place in people in middle ages. People with OCD do repetitive behaviours, perform routine tasks repeatedly or have certain thoughts routinely. For example, excessive hand washing, counting of things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked many times etc.

Causes of OCD

  • Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
  • Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.

Q.17 Elaborate the disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties and language impairment?
Answer:
The disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties are mentioned as below

  • Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
  • Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
  • Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
  • If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.

The disabilities etiquettes of person with language impairment are mentioned as below

  • Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
  • Do not argue with the person.
  • Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.

Q.18 Explain the advantages of physical activities for children with special needs.
Answer:
There are various advantages of physical activities for children with special needs.
These are mentioned below

  1. It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetitive behaviours among disabled children.
  2. Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers. This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
  3. It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
  4. It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
  5. It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight but regular exercises help in regulating weight.
  6. Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.

Q.19 Explain three causes that are behind intellectual disability.
Answer:
The three causes behind intellectual disability are as follows

  1. Genetic Conditions These include conditions like Downs syndrome and fragile X syndrome. These occur due to genetic mutations or heredity factors.
  2. Problems during Pregnancy and Childbirth Intellectual disability can be caused if the foetus is not well-developed during pregnancy. If an infant does not get sufficient oxygen during childbirth or is premature, then the chances are more of this disability.
  3. Illness or Injury Illness like meningitis, whooping cough, measles, infections in the brain or head injuries can be the causes of intellectual disability.

Q.20 Explain any five disability etiquettes towards people with hearing loss?
Answer:
There are various disability etiquettes to be shown towards people with hearing loss. These are as follows

  • Get.the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder.
  • Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
  • Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.
  • When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
  • Look directly at the person and speak f expressively.

Q.21 Explain five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs.
Answer:
The five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs are as follows

  1. Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
  2. Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipment that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
  3. Adaptive Physical Education Depending on students’ disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
  4. Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
  5. Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.

Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions with Answers: Yoga

Question 1.
Define yoga.
Answer:
Yoga is an ancient science that harmonises the body, mind and spirit.

Question 2.
Briefly write about Asana.
Answer:
Asanas refer to many positions in which a person sits or stands to make various postures.

Question 3.
Write any two benefits of Vajrasana in obesity.
Answer:
Two benefits of Vajrasana are as follows

  • It helps to prevent acidity and ulcers by improving the digestion.
  • It is a good meditative pose for those suffering from sciatica and severe lower back problems.

Question 4.
Explain the contraindication of Hashana.
Answer:
In case of shoulder or neck injuries, experiencing dizziness while staring upwards and in case of any other medical concerns.

Question 5.
Discuss the two contraindications of Trikonasana.
Answer:
Two contraindications of Trikonasana are as follows

  • Avoid doing this if suffering from migraine, diarrhoea, low or high blood pressure.
  • Avoid if having a problem of neck and back injuries.

Question 6.
What do you understand by the Ardha Matsyendrasana?
Answer:
Ardha Matsyendrasana or the half spinal twist. pose is one the main asanas practised in hatha yoga. This yoga helps in stimulating the liver. It is also therapeutic for asthma and infertility etc.

Question 7.
Discuss any two benefits of Paschimottasana.
Answer:
Two benefits of Paschimottasana are as follows

  • It helps to remove constipation and digestive disorder.
  • It reduces headache, anxiety and insomnia.

Question 8.
Write any two benefits of Pawanmuktasana.
Answer:
Two benefits of Pawanmuktasana are as follows

  • It helps to strengthen the back muscles and cure back pain.
  • It cures acidity, indigestion and constipation.

Question 9.
Write any two benefits of the Gomukhasana.
Answer:
The two benefits of Gomukhasana are as follows

  • It is helpful in the treatment of sciatica.
  • It enhances the workings of the kidneys by stimulating it, thus helping those suffering from diabetes.

Question 10.
State two contraindication of Tadasana. :
Answer:
The two contraindications of Tadasana are as follows

  • Avoid during insomnia.
  • Avoid during low blood pressure.

Question 11.
Explain Yoga and Asana.
Answer:
Yoga The term yoga is derived from the. Sanskrit word ‘Yuj’. Yoga means union of the individual consciousness or soul with the universal consciousness or spirit: Yoga is not only a physical exercise but the infinite potentials of the human mind and soul. The science of yoga imbibes the complete essence of the way of life.

Asana It refers to the position in which a person sits/stands to do yoga. Asanas are beneficial for the muscles, joints, cardiovascular system, nervous system and lymphatic system. It prevents from lifestyle diseases. It strengthens and balances the entire nervous system.

Question 12.
State the benefits and contraindications of Bhujangasana in the context of diabetes.
Answer:
There are many benefits as well as contraindications of Bhujangasana. These are as follows

Benefits

  • It improves blood circulation and energises the heart.
  • It decreases menstrual irregularities in females.
  • It strengthens muscles of chest, shoulders, arms and abdomen.
  • It is effective in uterine disorder.
  • It improves the function of reproductive organ.
  • It improves the function of liver, kidney, pancreas and gall bladder.
  • It helps to lose weight.

Contraindications

  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • People having a hernia problem and backache should not do this asana.
  • Avoid those who are suffering from ulcer, heart problem or any surgeries like spine and brain.

Question 13.
Explain the procedure of Pawanmuktasana.
Answer:
There are following ways to do this asana

  • This is done in lying position.
  • Lie flat on the back and keep the legs straight, relax, breathe deeply and regularly.
  • Inhale slowly and lift the legs and bend in the knees. Bring upwards to the chest till the thigh touches to stomach.
  • Hug the knees in place and lock the fingers.
  • Place the nose tip between the knees.
  • Exhale slowly and come back to the original position i.e. Shavasana.
  • This is very beneficial for stomach abs. The results are very impressive.

Question 14.
Explain the procedures of Paschimottasana.
Answer:
There are following ways to do this asana

  • This is done in sitting posture.
  • Sit on the floor with the outstretched legs.
  • Inhale and lengthen the abdomen then lift the chest.
  • Exhale, bend forward from the hips. Keep the shoulders open and the head up.
  • Reach forwards and hold the big toes in a lock with the middle and index fingers.
  • Inhale, lengthen the torso, bring the sternum forward.
  • Exhale, bring the chest and abdomen down to the thighs and the elbows out to the sides.
  • Stay in this position for 5 deep breaths and relax the muscles while exhaling.
  • Focus on stretching the hamstrings rather than getting the head to the knees.

Question 15.
Write detail about the benefits of Hastasana.
Answer:
There are some benefits of Hastasana as follows

  • It stretches the complete body and provides a good message to the arms, spine, upper and lower back ankles, hands, shoulders, calf muscles and thighs.
  • It stretches the organs of the stomach and as a result, enhances the digestive system and increases the capacity of the lungs.
  • This asana helps in enhancing the blood circulation of the body.
  • It helps in enhancing the body postures.
  • It helps in alleviating nervousness and melancholy along with providing a sense of achievement.
  • It helps in tightening the abdomen and helps in easing sciatica.

Question 16.
State the contraindication of Gomukhasana and Bhujangasana.
Answer:
There are following contraindications of Gomukhasana

  • Those who are suffering from shoulder, knee or back pain should avoid this.
  • Suffering from any kind of knee injury/problem avoid this.

There are following contraindications of Bhujangasana

  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • People having a hernia problem and backache should not do this asana.
  • Avoid those who are suffering from ulcer, heart problem or any surgeries like spine and brain.

Question 17.
Discuss the procedure of Tadasana for back pain.
Answer:
There is the procedure of Tadasana as follows

  • This is a standing asana.
  • Stand straight with the feet together.
  • Slowly lift the toes and place them back on the floor.
  • Pull up the kneecaps and squeeze the thighs.
  • Inhale and lift up from the waist.
  • Breathe and hold for 4 to 8 breaths.
  • Exhale and drop the shoulders down.

Question 18.
Explain the benefits and contraindications of Vakrasana.
Answer:
There are following benefits of Vakrasana

  • It reduces belly fat.
  • It improves the function of both spinal cord and nervous system.
  • It controls diabetes and strengthens kidneys.
  • It kindles adrenal gland to function properly.
  • It helps to control waist, back pain and chronic back pain.

Contraindications

  • Avoid if suffering from ulcer and enlargement of liver.
  • Avoid suffering from severe back pain, ulcer and hernia.

Question 19.
Elaborate the benefits of asanas of Sukasana, Tadasana and Shalabhasana.
Answer:
There are various benefits of these asanas
Benefits ‘of Sukasana

  • It helps to make the back stronger and elongate the knees and ankles.
  • It is beneficial for opening up of the groin, hips as well as the outer thigh muscles.
  • It relieves from physical and mental tiredness, strengthens the state of peacefulness and eliminates worries from the person’s mind.
  • It can relive from backache as well as pain.

Benefits of Tadasana

  • It improves body posture and reduces flat feet problem.
  • Knees, thighs and ankles become stronger.
  • Buttocks and abdomen get toned.
  • It helps to alleviate sciatica.
  • It also makes the spine more agile.
  • It helps to increase height and improve balance.
  • It regulates digestive, nervous and respiratory systems.

Benefits of Shalabhasana

  • It is beneficial in spine problem.
  • It is helpful for backache and sciatica pain.
  • It is helpful to remove unwanted fats around the abdomen, waist, hips and thighs.
  • It can cure cervical spondylitis and spinal cord ailments.
  • It gives flexibility to the back muscles and spine.
  • It can strengthen the shoulders and neck muscles.

Question 20
Explain the contraindications of Trikonasana, Ardha, Matsyendrasana and Bhujangasana.
Answer:
Contraindications of Trikonasana

  • Avoid doing this if suffering from migraine, diarrhoea, neck and back injuries.
  • Those with high blood pressure may do this pose but without raising their hand overhead, as this may further raise the blood pressure.

Contraindications of Ardha Matsyendrasana

  • Avoid during pregnancy and menstruation due to the strong twist in the abdomen.
  • People with heart, abdominal or brain surgeries should avoid this asana.
  • Avoid those who are having peptic ulcer or hernia.
  • Those with severe spinal problems should avoid.
  • Those with mild slipped disc can benefit but in severe cases it should be avoided.

Contraindications of Bhujangasana

  • Avoid during pregnancy.
  • People having a hernia problem and backache should not do this asana.
  • Avoid those who are suffering from ulcer, heart problem or any surgeries like spine and brain.

Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions with Answers: Physical Activity & Leadership Training

Answer. Leadership is the ability to build up confidence and zeal among people and to create an urge in them to be led

Question 2. Elaborate the various leadership qualities one inculcates by participating in adventure sports. 
Answer. Leadership qualities inculcated by participating in adventure sports are decisiveness, friendliness and affection, technical and administrative skill, intelligence, creativity, dedication and : determination, logical decision making, good communication, morality and loyalty, dynamism and energy, teaching skill, good health, high motor capacity, respect for others, interest in research and social skills.

Question 3. Elaborate the various leadership qualities one inculcates by participating in adventure sports. [CBSE 2015 Sample Paper]
Answer. Leadership qualities inculcated by participating in adventure sports are decisiveness, friendliness and affection, technical and administrative skill, intelligence, creativity, dedication and : determination, logical decision making, good communication, morality and loyalty, dynamism and energy, teaching skill, good health, high motor capacity, respect for others, interest in research and social skills.

Question 4. List six objectives of adventure sports.
Answer. The objectives of adventure sports are (any six)

  1. To develop self confidence.
  2. To build concentration.
  3. To bond with nature.
  4. To face challenges of crisis situations.
  5. To properly channelise bodily energy.
  6. To provide exhilaration, amusement and excitement.
  7. To encourage creativity.
  8. To develop mental and physical fitness.
  9. To improve social relations.

Question 5. List three features of rock climbing activity.
Answer. Features of rock climbing are (any three)

  1. It requires participants to climb on natural rock formations or on artificial rock walls.
  2. It is a dangerous sports activity requiring strong mental control, agility, flexibility, endurance and various coordinative activities.
  3. Its goal is to reach the apex or summit of a formation without falling.
  4. Competitions in this activity are held either to complete a pre-fixed route in the minimum time or to reach the farthest point on a difficult route.
  5. Different variations of this sport are termed as free, aided, traditional, sport or top rope climbing, free soloing and bouldering,

Question 6. What are six safety measures to be kept in mind while camping?
Answer. Safety measures to be kept in mind while camping are (any six)

  1. Pack a first aid kit for use in emergencies.
  2. Before starting for the camping site, go through the weather forecast for the area. At the camp site, watch the sky for changes.
  3. Reach the camp site with enough time to check the complete site during day time.
  4. Avoid areas of natural hazards for camping.
  5. Keep fuel burning appliances like stoves far away from tents.
  6. Inside the tents do not use candles or an open flame; instead, use a flashlight.
  7. Do not leave waste products in an open area, but recycle them or bury them.
  8. Beware when encountering wildlife.
  9. Ensure to extinguish completely all fires after use; do not leave any smoldering embers.
  10. Beware of poisonous plants, as they may be allergic.

Question 7. What are the different levels of trekking? Describe the levels in one sentence each.
Answer. The four levels of trekking are easy, moderate, strenuous and difficult. Easy trekking is for beginners and does not involve climbing to great heights. Moderate trekking is more energetic and of a duration of about ten days or more. Strenuous trekking involves ascent to heights up to 5000 m and requires some previous trekking experience. Difficult trekking, meant only for the real adventure seekers, may last for over a month.

Question 8. Explain three characteristics of river rafting activity.
Answer. The characteristics of river rafting activity are

  1. It involves using a dinghy or raft for navigating fast flowing rivers.
  2.  Due to the swift flow and rocks in the river, the passage requires good navigation skill for manoeuvering the raft.
  3. It requires great physical and mental toughness to survive the ordeal without accident or injury.

Question 9. What are three advantages of engaging in mountaineering activity?
Answer. Three advantages of engaging in mountaineering activity are

  1.  It is one of the finest outdoor opportunities available for lovers of heights.
  2. It challenges the individual to display tremendous endurance, agility, strength and. mental patience.
  3. It gives the unique experience of putting hands and feet onto rocks and ice to finally reach a summit.

Question 10. How do we distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources? Give one example of each.
Answer. Renewable resources are natural resources whose quantity is not significantly reduced by human consumption, as they get replaced through natural processes. An example of renewable resource is wind energy. Non-renewable resources are replaced very gradually (usually over millions of years) after they have been consumed by humans. An example of non-renewable resource is petroleum oil.

Question 11. List six qualities of an effective leader.
Answer. Qualities of an effective leader are (any six)

  1. Decisiveness
  2. Possessing coaching and teaching skills
  3. Energetic (particularly in physical education / sports)
  4. Creative personality
  5. Possessing good health
  6. Friendly and affectionate
  7. Dedicated and determined
  8. Having high motor capacity (particularly in physical education / sports)
  9.  Having social skills
  10. Logical decision maker
  11. Loyal and having morality
  12. A good communicator

Question 12. What do we mean by conservation of environment? List two steps we should take for conservation of forests.
Answer. Conservation of environment is the balanced and appropriate use of natural resources so that the environment is not significantly affected today and for future generations. It implies sustainable use and management of natural resources.
Two steps which we can take for conservation of forests are

  1. Encourage planting of trees
  2. Avoiding the use of wood in house construction.

Question 13. Describe five safety measures to be taken while river rafting.
Answer. The safety measures to be taken while river rafting are (any five)

  1. Never go on this activity alone. Always have a team of people in the raft.
  2. All participants must have adequate capabilities as swimmers, just in case of an accident.
  3. Always wear life vest and helmet while participating in this activity.
  4. Before starting, check all the equipment to ensure everything is okay. Particularly check the dinghy / raft for any cracks and proper air level.
  5. If any participant feels tired, he should not drag his paddle in the water, as it might hit a rock in the river.
  6.  Drink plenty of liquids before, during and after the rafting activity, as this activity makes you dehydrated.
  7.  End your rafting before darkness falls; if it is getting dark, don’t go for this activity.

Question 14. List five uses of water as a natural resource, in each case indicating how it can be conserved.
Answer. Uses of water as a natural resource are .

  1. Using ground water (from wells / tube wells) for crop irrigation. This can be conserved by using sprinklers and drip irrigation method.
  2. Use of rain water for multiple needs. By rain water harvesting, this can be used.
  3. Reuse waste water flowing from industries after effluent treatment.
  4. Using water for domestic needs like drinking, bathing, clothes washing etc. To conserve this, avoid keeping water taps open while brushing teeth, shaving etc. Also check and repair leakage in water taps or pipes.
  5. Use of river water for multiple needs. This water must be treated for effluents before being released for irrigation.

Question 15. Explain five methods of conservation of environment which should be employed by persons engaging in adventure sports.
Answer. Methods of conservation of environment which should be employed by persons engaging in adventure sports are

  1. Don’t leave leftover eatables or any rubbish by the roadside. Either dispose in a proper dumping place or bury it.
  2. Dirty utensils and clothes should not be washed in streams. Collect water in a bucket and wash them with that.
  3. Do not leave any non-biodegradable waste products at any place, but bring them back to deposit at waste collection centres or approved dumping sites.
  4. Do not defecate or urinate near streams or on river banks.
  5. Do not remove or cut trees, herbs or shrubs for burning fires or cooking during your activity.

Question 16. How can physical education create leaders and desirable qualities of leaders in people?
Answer. Leaders in the physical education field need to have both innate and acquired qualities. First and foremost, it is decided who are the people who should be developed as leaders. These are generally the people who have some innate leadership skills. Then those acquired skills are identified for development which this group of persons require. Then these budding leaders are given opportunities for organizing events, tournaments and competitions to develop the required skills. They are observed while performing the necessary actions for successful conclusion of these, all the time being advised on where they are going wrong. In this way, leaders can be created through physical education activities.

Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions with Answers: Psychology & Sports

Question 1.
What is sports psychology?
OR
Define sports psychology.
Answer:
Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human F behaviour on the playfield, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.

Question 2.
Define personality.
Answer:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “The totality of sentiments, attitude, idea, habits, skills and behaviours of an individual is personality.

Question 3.
What are coping strategies?
Answer:
Coping strategies are a conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems. They are of two types problem-focused coping . and emotion-focused coping.

Question 4.
What do you understand by aggression in sports?
Answer:
In sports, aggression means the desire to harm another player which is not within the laws of the game. For example, pushing another player over a game in football or using abusive language for other players or teams,

Question 5.
What is motivation?
Answer:
Motivation means to be inspired to do something a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction.

Question 6.
What are the types of motivation?
Answer:
There are two types of motivation

  • Internal or intrinsic motivation
  • External or extrinsic motivation

Question 7.
What is intrinsic motivation? Delhi 2016
Answer:
This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Question 8.
How extrinsic’motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Answer:
Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.

Question 9.
What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer:
The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following’points

  • It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
  • It identifies talent for specific sport’s.
  • It creates a better learning situation.
  • It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
  • It is important from the research point of view.
  • It encourages the players to make a comeback in professional sports.

Question 10.
Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer:
Two techniques to manage stress are –

  1. Aim to Exercise Regularly Exercise dissipates the adrenaline that builds up in stressful situations and leaves us with a feeling or sense of achievement and control.
  2. Eat Healthy Ensure that you are getting adequate vitamins and minerals in your diet. One recommendation that very few of us manage to follow is to eat 5 servings of fruit and vegetables every day.

Question 11.
What are the types of personality as given by Sheldon?
Answer:
The personality types on the basis of physical attributes are given by William Herbert Sheldon. These are as follows

  1. Endomorph The endomorph is physically quite round, with wide hips, narrow shoulders, which makes them pear-shaped. Lot of fat is spread across the body. They are sociable, fun-loving, tolerant, even-tempered, good-humoured, relaxed and love food.
  2. Ectomorph They are quite the opposite of endomorph. They have narrow shoulders and hips, thin, narrow face, high forehead, thin, narrow chest and very little body fat. They are self-conscious, private, introvert, socially anxious, intense, emotionally restrained and thoughtful.
  3. Mesomorph They are somewhere between endomorph and ectomorph. They have large head, broad shoulders, narrow waist (wedge-shaped), muscular body, strong limbs and little body fat. They are well proportioned. They are adventurous, courageous, assertive, bold, competitive, with a desire to dominate, take risk, rise to power.

Question 12.
What are the personality types as formulated by Carl Jung?
Answer:
The personality type on mental basis is formulated by Carl Jung.
These are as follows

  1. Extroverts Have more self-confidence, take more interest in others, are outgoing, lively and realistic. They are very social and form friends quite easily. Actors, social and political leaders etc belong to this group.
  2. Introverts Are too self-conscious, more interested in their own thoughts and ideas, self-centred, shy, reserved and lovers of solitude. They do not make friends easily and keep in the background on social occasions. Philosophers, poets, artists and scientists belong to this class.
  3. Ambiverts Doubting whether people can be divided into these two extremes, he put most of the people in this category and they have been labelled as ‘ambiverts.’ The ambiverts are a mixture of both the extremes in a balanced manner. Ambiverts are neither outgoing nor reserved to themselves. They are able to adjust themselves to any situation.

Question 13.
Explain the type of aggression in sports.
Answer:
There are two types of aggression in sports

  1. Instrumental Aggression It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is directed at the target as a means to an end. For example, injuring a player to gain a competitive advantage or stopping an opponent from scoring.
  2. Hostile Aggression It is a type of aggression in which behaviour is aimed toward another person who has angered or provoked the individual and is an end in itself. For example, hitting an opponent who has just been aggressive against the player. It is generally proceeded by anger.

Question 14.
Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer:
Two techniques of motivation are

  1. Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
  2. Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or sport and not any other.

Question 15.
Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. CBSE 2012
Answer:
Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.

Question 16.
What is meant by motivation? Explain the different techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports. All India 2017
Answer:
Motivation is a process through which an individual is inspired or stimulated to act in a particular fashion or manner towards a particular direction.
Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are

  1. Knowing Your Athlete Each athlete comes from a different background with varied experiences and having different degrees of maturity.
  2. Level of Aspiration/ Goal Setting As we know that achieving performance goals is a sign of competence that affects motivation positively, it is necessary to set realistic goals based on one’s own abilities.
  3. Identifying Incentive Factors If an athlete perceives that any particular kind of experiences are available to him in a given sport and he feels that these will be pleasant, enjoyable or satisfying, then he will choose to participate in that game or, sport and not any other.

Question 17.
Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer:
Sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human behaviour on the playfield, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition.
Importance of sports psychology is due to

  1. Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
  2. Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sport has specific psychological demands e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
  3. Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological makeup and anxiety level.
  4. Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists work in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the erformance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
  5. Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Question 18.
Explain the structure of personality. Describe the role of sports in developing the personality, (Delhi 2016)
Answer:
The word personality is derived from Latin word persona meaning the mask. In ancient Greece, the actors used to wear masks to hide their identities while portraying their roles in a theatrical play.

To an ordinary person the word personality conveys the meaning of one’s physical appearance, his habits, his ways of dressing, his reputation, his manners and other similar characteristics.

So, personality basically reveals the psychological make-up of ah individual through his behaviour. In fact, it is the quality of a person’s total behaviour. Physical activities and sports play an important role in the development of personality of an individual.

One of the primary and apparent aspects of one’s personality is one’s physical appearance. Children, as well as adults, boys as well as girls, all, are very much concerned about how they look. Physical activities are conducive to the growth and development of the physique. Robust and athletic physique does enhance one’s personality. Poise, grace, agility and the manner one carries oneself have a great impact on one’s personality.

Question 19.
Participation in sport results in the all-round development of personality. Justify.
Answer:
Games and sports are essential for the all- round development of personality.
It is by participating in games and sports that we can develop and maintain our health, keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Participation increases blood circulation and we get an increased supply of oxygen. This makes a person healthier. Only a healthy person can work long, hard and cheerfully.

An unhealthy person may not take as much interest in work. Games and sports have additional benefits to exercise as they are played in groups and in a healthy competitive spirit.

Among many other things, they help develop cooperation, quality of leadership, team spirit and a willingness to submit to, and further, the rule of law. Games instil in participants the spirit of self-reliance, justice, fair play and sporting spirit. They make people bold, adventurous, social, disciplined and more conscious of their responsibilities towards society and the nation. People participating regularly in games and sports have been found better equipped to fight superstitions, communalism, obscurantism and a narrow approach to issues of national interest.

Games also help in overcoming feelings of violence, arrogance and superiority as these are purged by providing them a sufficient outlet through them. A sportsperson may not lose his or her temper and morale even in the face of defeat because he/she would take it coolly, calmly and then would try to perform better the next time.

Players know that victory and defeat are two aspects of the same coin. There is more joy in playing than in its end result. Thus, participation in sport results in the all-round development of personality.

Question 20.
Define stress. How stress can be tackled by the players? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Answer:
Stress can be defined as a physical, mental or emotional demand, which tends to disturb the homeostasis of the body.” Stress is experienced when individuals feel that they cannot cope with a situation with which they are presented.

If athletes are in a stressful situation, then their athletic performance will be affected. This stress may arise because of commitments in the areas of work, study, sports, family and social life. When commitments in a number of areas coincide, then stress can arise. By proper planning, the stress can be tackled or reduced. Some steps can be taken to reduce stress.

These are

  • Exercise Regularly Regular exercise can control stressful situation.
  • Eat Healthy Balanced diet enriched with vitamins and minerals should be taken.
  • Get Enough Sleep Get enough sleep for proper rest and sleeping hours may vary person to person.
  • Accept Mistake and Set Realistic Goals Learn from mistakes and set realistic achievable goals.
  • Knowing your Own Strength and Weakness Accept your own drawbacks and strength and plan the action according to it.
  • Better Time Management Better time management saves time and helps to pre-plan the programme which ultimately can reduce stress.

Following these steps, a player can easily tackle stress in his life.

Question 21.
Your friend is under a lot of stress as he is not able to take even a single wicket in cricket match series. Suggest ways by which you can help him to come out of stress.
Answer:
There are two ways by which I can help him to come out of stress. First is by adopting a problem-focused coping strategy, in which I will ask him to find the root cause of his problem such as to check the bowling speed, pace, style and length of delivery. Then suggest him to find out ways of improving it. For this, he can take help of his coach. Second is by adopting the emotion-focused coping strategy.

Here I will ask him to disengage from that situation by doing some new activity or simply relaxing, watching TV, take him to movies, listen to music etc.

Question.1. What is anxiety? [CBSE2013]
Answer. Anxiety is a disturbed state of the body or an unrealistic and unpleasant state of body and mind. It,is accompanied by nervousness, restlessness, increased heart rate, sweating, drying of the mouth, apprehension of danger, fear and rapid shallow breathing.

Question.2. What is ethics in sports?
Answer. Ethics is a branch or subdiscipline of philosophy called axiology, the study of values. Ethics in sports means to have an ideal conduct and knowledge of good and evil and what should be done and not to be done by a person.
Ethical behaviour in sports includes:

  1.  sportsmanship
  2.  good character
  3.  fair play
  4.  cooperative and self- disciplined behaviour

Question.3. What is sports psychology?
Or
Define sports psychology.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training/competitions.

Question.4.What is motivation?
Answer.Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a person to make constant effort.

Question.5.What are the types of motivation?
Answer.(i) Internal or natural (intrinsic) motivation.
(ii) External or artificial (extrinsic) motivation

Question.6.Define anxiety in one sentence.
Answer.Anxiety is a chronic fear that limits our ability to carry out normal functions.

Question.7.What is intrinsic motivation?
Answer.This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social needs etc.

Question.8.What are the causes and symptoms of anxiety in sports?
Answer.Causes:

  1.  Genetics
  2.  Brain chemistry
  3. Environmental factors
  4. Stress

Symptoms:

  1.  Feeling restlessness
  2.  Muscular tension
  3. Nervousness
  4.  Headache
  5.  Increased BP
  6.  Confusion

Question.9.How extrinsic motivation may sometimes kill intrinsic motivation?
Answer.Extrinsic motivation may kill intrinsic motivation sometimes because the physical appearance of something has more influence on the mind of an athlete.

Question.10.What do you understand by self-esteem?
Answer.Self-esteem means how you value and respect yourself as a person. It is the real opinion you have of yourself. It impacts how you take care of yourself physically, emotionally and spiritually.

Question.11. Explain any three causes of anxiety.
Answer. The various causes of anxiety are (any three):

  1.  Uncertainty about Result Competitions provide challenge and stimulation. It is in the field of unpredictability. The outcome is not known. One is under pressure for one’s achievements.
  2.  Level of Competition The more important the contest, the greater is the stress or level of anxiety for that particular competition.
  3. Expectations of Spectators The spectators have a huge role or impact on how athletes feel. The expectations are more when it is a home venue.
  4.  Possibility of Getting Hurt This can be a source of anxiety, especially in games like boxing, martial arts, gymnastics etc because the chances of injury are more.
  5. Expectations of Success Some athletes take up the challenge and are psyched up to perform better and get success, whereas some are not coming upto the expectations and are psyched-out, which causes failure.

Question.12. Explain goal setting as a technique of motivation in brief. [CBSE 2012]
Answer. Goal setting technique is one of the most important techniques of motivation. If you do not set a goal, you cannot achieve an apex position in life. A person should set goals according to one’s capabilities on a regular basis. Coaches should not be too rigid while setting goals for a sportsperson. There should be some flexibility in their approach.

Question.13. Explain two techniques of motivation.
Answer. Two techniques of motivation are:

  1.  Goal Setting Sportsmen should be encouraged to set a few ambitious but achievable long-term as well as medium-term goals, e.g. if a person wants to get a good position or a medal in Olympic Games, he should also set the goals for getting a position in Asian or National Games.
  2.  Elaborate Arrangement of Competition Sports persons perform better in competitions if there are elaborate arrangements of competition. However, an inexperienced sportsperson may not be able to put up a good show.

Question.14. What is the importance of sports psychology?
Answer. The importance of sports psychology can be understood from the following points:

  1.  It analyses the behaviour of sportsmen.
  2.  It identifies talent for specific sports.
  3.  It creates a better learning situation.
  4. It stabilises the performance of a sportsperson for a longer period.
  5.  It is important from the research point of view.
  6.  It encourages the players to perform better.

Question.15. Explain any three techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports.
Answer.Techniques of motivation for higher achievement in sports are

  1.  Healthy Sports Environment A healthy sports environment plays a vital role in motivating the sportsperson. Healthy sport environment consists of proper humidity and temperature, smooth and clean sports fields, good quality of sports equipment and other facilities. .
  2.  Positive Attitude For proper motivation, the coaches should try to encourage positive attitude among sportspersons. Players must think positively.
  3.  Cash Prizes, Certificates and Trophies These are good incentives to sportspersons. Governments offer cash prizes to sportspersons who win.

Question.16. What is the role of anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety plays an important role in sports. It is an essential ingredient of any competitive situation. Anxiety levels differ from athlete to athlete and from situation to situation. Athletes learn how to cope with stressful and competitive situations and manage anxiety with or assistance from a coach, otherwise they would not be able to give outstanding performances.

Question.17. How can you manage anxiety in sports?
Answer. Anxiety can be managed by:

  1.  Keeping cool
  2.  Yogic meditation
  3.  Biofeedback
  4.  Following a behaviour modification strategy
  5. Progressive relaxation breathing technique
  6. Somatic adjustment (control of cognitive processes)
  7. Guidance from a technically trained sports psychologist

Question.18. What are general sports ethics?
Answer. Sports ethics means the code of conduct of players, coaches, supervisors and administrators of various organisations. Ethics such as honesty, fairplay, obedience of rules, discipline and many moral behaviours are developed through participation.
Some common ethics related to sports are:

  1.  Winning and losing gracefully.
  2. Getting recognition, name and fame without using unfair means.
  3.  Loyalty towards his/her team, game, institution or country.

Question.19. What principles should be followed for goal setting?
Answer. Principles to be followed for goal setting are:

  1.  Make goals specific, measurable, and observable.
  2.  Clearly identify time constraints.
  3. Use moderately difficult goals; they are superior to either easy or very difficult goals.
  4. Write goals down and regularly monitor progress.
  5. Use a mix of process, performance, and outcome goals.
  6.  Use short range goals to achieve long range goals.
  7.  Set team as well as individual performance goals.
  8. Set practice as well as competition goals.
  9.  Make sure goals are internalised by the athlete.
  10. Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting.

Question.20. Explain any two techniques to manage stress.
Answer. Two techniques to manage stress are:

  1. Participation in Physical Activities Physical exercises of moderate to high intensity, like aerobic exercises, are one of the”best methods to relieve stress. Physically fit persons are more resistant to the effects of stress than others.
  2.  Achieve a High Level of Physical Fitness Achieving fitness is important to manage stress advantageously, while not eliminating it totally. Too little or too severe stress both lower performance in sports.

Question.21. Define sports psychology and elucidate its importance in the field of sports.
Answer. Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and the behaviour of a player during training or competitions.
Importance of Sports Psychology is due to :

  1.  Learning of Motor Skills Sports psychology plays a major role in the learning of motor skills. Motor ; skills learning depends on the dividual’s level of readiness.
  2.  Analysing the Behaviour of Sportsmen Performance of a player depends upon the behaviours which are influenced by various factors such as sex differences, family conditions, personal background, heredity, growth, physical and mental maturity levels etc.
  3.  Identifying Talent for Specific Sports Every sports has specific psychological demands, e.g. boxing requires more aggressiveness, whereas archery and shooting require more concentration.
  4.  Stabilising the Performance for Longer Period It helps in stabilising the performance of a player for a longer period. Then the performance of the player largely depends upon his psychological make up and anxiety level.
  5.  Important from Research Point of View Sports psychologists works in very close proximity to coaches to uplift the performance of players. Research findings help in promotion of sports and games.
  6.  Encouraging the Players to Make a Comeback in Professional Sports Sports psychology encourages the players, who, due to injury or some accident, are forced to take a long break from their professional career, to return to their sport.

Question.22. What is motivation? Explain different types of motivation.
Answer. Motivation means to be inspired to do something. It is a kind of inner force which energises a man to make constant effort.
According to Crook and Stein, “Motivation is any condition that might energise and direct our action.”
Types of Motivation
There are two types of motivation:

  1.  Intrinsic Motivation This motivation is within an individual and guides him/her to perform better. It is based upon needs, interest, nature, emotions, social need etc. It also depends upon knowledge of result, personal factor, competition zeal etc. He/she participates in sports for his/her own sake.
  2.  Extrinsic Motivation This motivation depends upon environmental factors. It has a great impact on an individual’s performance. It is of various types like rewards, punishment, active participation, test evaluation, teaching methods, equipment and surroundings etc.

Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions with Answers: Training and Doping in Sports

Question 1.
What do you mean by training?
Answer:
Training means to prepare someone for some assignment. Training is the process of preparation for some task.

Question 2.
Write any two definitions of sports training.
Answer:
According to Mathew, “Sports training is the basic form of preparation of a sportsman.” According to Martin, “It is a planned and controlled process to achieve goals in which the changes of motor performance and behaviour are made through measures of content, methods and organisation.

Question 3.
What is sports training?
Answer:
Sports training is the physical, intellectual, technical, psychological and moral preparation of an athlete or a player by means of physical exercises.

Question 4.
List two impacts of circuit training.
Answer:

  • It enhances cardiovascular fitness.
  • It enhances muscular endurance.

Question 5.
What is circuit training?
Answer:
Circuit training is a form of body conditioning or resistance training using high-intensity aerobics. It targets strength building and muscular endurance.

Question 6.
What is endurance?
Answer:
Endurance is the ability to do sports movements with the desired quality and speed under conditions of fatigue.

Question 7.
What does the term ‘Fartlek’ mean and who developed this training method? All India 2017
Answer:
Fartlek is a Swedish term which means ‘speed play’ and has been used by distance runner for years. Fartlek is a form of road running or cross country running in which the runner usually changes the pace significantly during the run.

This method was introduced by O Astrand and Gosta Halner. It is good for aerobic and anaerobic fitness. That is why it makes an athlete a better sprinter and a better long-distance runner.

Question 8.
What is speed?
Answer:
It is the ability to cover distance in minimum possible time or the ability to perform movement in the shortest possible time.

Question 9.
What are pace races? (CBSE 2013)
Answer:
Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete runs the race with uniform speed, generally 800m and above.

Very young children can maintain their maximum speed for 15 to 20m, whereas a well-trained athlete can maintain maximum speed for 40m. Repetitions can be fixed according to the standard of the athletes.

Question 10.
What is flexibility?
Answer:
Flexibility is the ability to perform a joint action through a range of movement. It is needed to perform everyday activities with relative ease. Flexibility tends to deteriorate with age.

Question 11.
What are the methods for developing flexibility?
Answer:
Methods for developing flexibility are –

  • Ballistic method
  • Slow-stretching method
  • Slow-stretching and Holding method
  • Post-Isometric stretching method ‘

Question 12.

Explain the meaning of training.
Answer:
Training means to prepare someone for some assignment. It is the process of preparation for some task. Many countries have recognised the importance of an effective training programme a wide range of activities not only for success in major international competitions but also for the development of healthy participants.

Question 13.
What is strength? What are the different types of strength?
Answer:
Strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force in single muscle contraction or it is the ability to overcome resistance. Strength is an essential component of physical fitness.
Types of strength are

  • Maximum Strength
  • Explosive Strength
  • Strength Endurance
  • Static Strength

Question 14.
Explain the advantages of fartlek training, (CBSE 2012)
Answer:
Advantages of fartlek training are

  • It is good for increasing strength and cardiorespiratory endurance.
  • Several athletics can take part in the training programme at a time.
  • It does not require any equipment and can be organised easily.
  • This training method is not rigid; it is flexible in nature.
  • It improves the efficiency of the heart and lungs.
  • It provides experience of nature.

Question 15.
Explain interval training method. (All India 2017)
OR
Discuss any two methods of endurance development.
Answer:

  1. Interval Training Method It is a type of training that involves a series of low to high-intensity exercise workouts interspersed with rest of relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to ahaerobic exercise, while the recovery periods involve activity of lower intensity.
  2. Fartlek Training Method Fartlek is a training method that blends continuous training with interval training. It is a form of speed training that can be.effective in improving an individual’s speed and endurance. Many runners, especially beginners enjoy fartlek training because it involves speed work. It is more flexible and notas demanding as-traditional interval training. Another benefit is that it can be done on all types of terrains-roads, trails or even hills.

Question 16.
What is strength? Discuss any two types of exercises used for strength development.
OR
Explain what is strength and write the -‘ methods of impraving strength. (All India 2016)
Answer:
Strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force in single muscle contraction or it is the ability to overcome resistance. Strength is an essential component of physical fitness.
Types of exercises for strength development% are

  1. Isometric Exercises Tso’ means ‘constant’ and ‘metric’ means ‘length’. An isometric contraction occurs when there is tension on a muscle blit no movement is made, causing the length of the muscle to remain the same.
  2. Isotonic Exercise Isotonic exercise is a form of exercise which involves controlled contraction and extension of muscles and- mobilisation of the joints around those muscles.
  3. Isokinetic Exercises Isokinetic exercises are performed on specially designed machines. These exercises were developed by Perrine in 1968. In these exercises, there is movement along with continuous tension in both flexor and extensor muscles.

Question 17.
Differentiate isometric and isotonic exercises. (Delhi 2016)
Answer:
An isometric contraction occurs when there is tension on a muscle without any movement. The length of the muscles remains constant. Isotonic exercises involve controlled contraction and extension of muscles and mobilisation of the joints around those muscles. A comparison between their characteristics is given below

S.No. Isometric Exercises Isotonic Exercises
(i) Less or no equipment required. Sometimes equipment is required to perform them.
(ii) It develops static strength. It develops dynamic strength.
(iii) It needs less time. Muscles which are used in this exercise gain most strength.

Question 18.
Explain the physiological factors determining speed.
OR
What are various factors of speed?
OR
Explain the types of speed.
OR
Write in brief about any three physiological factors determining speed. Delhi 2016
Answer:
The various factors of speed are

  1. Reaction Speed It is the ability to respond /to a given stimulus as quickly as possible. In sports, reaction ability is not only significant to react quickly to a signal, but it should also be accurate according to situation.
  2. Movement Speed It is the ability to do a single movement m the minimum time. Movement speed is of high relevance in sports like jumping, throwing, kicking, boxing etc.
  3. Acceleration Speed It is the ability to increase speed from minimum to maximum. This form of speed, to a great extent, depends upon explosive strength, frequency of movement and technique. This ability is important in swimming, hockey, football, gymnastics etc.
  4. Locomotor Ability It can be defined as the ability to maintain maximum speed of locomotion over a period of time as far as possible. This ability is very important in races, speed skating, swimming, hockey, football etc.
  5. Speed Endurance It is the ability to do sports movements with high speed under conditions of fatigue. Speed endurance is a combination of speed and endurance abilities. This ability depends upon anaerobic capacity, psychic factors and level of skill.

Question 19.
Define speed. Explain the methods of speed development. (Delhi 2016, 15)
OR
How do acceleration runs and pace races develop speed?
Answer:
Speed It is the ability of an individual to cover maximum distance in minimum possible time. Developing Methods

  1. Acceleration Run Acceleration runs are usually adopted to develop speed specially in attaining maximum speed from a stationary position. Before acceleration runs, proper warm up must be done. After every acceleration run, there should be a proper interval so that the athlete may start the next run without any fatigue. Generally, the athlete should take rest of 4 to 5 minutes in between the runs.
  2. Pace Races Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete runs the race with uniform speed, generally 800 m and above. Very young children can maintain their maximum speed for 15 to 20m, whereas a well-trained athlete can maintain maximum speed for 40m. Repetitions can be fixed according to the standard of the athletes.

Question 20.
Briefly explain different types of coordinative abilities. (All India 2016)
Answer:
The different types of coordinative abilities are

  1. Differentiation Ability It is the ability to achieve a high level of fine-tuning or harmony of individual movement phases and body part movements.
  2. Orientation Ability It is the ability to determine and change the position and movements of the body in time and space in relation to a definite of action e.g. playing field, boxing ring, apparatus and a moving object e.g. ball, opponent, partner.
  3. Coupling Ability It is the ability to coordinate body part movements (e.g. movements of hand, feet, trunk etc) with one another and in relation to a definite goal-oriented whole body movement. Coupling ability is especially important in sports in which movements with a high degree of difficulty have to be done e.g. gymnastics, team games.
  4. Reaction Ability It is the ability to react quickly and effectively to a signal.
  5. Balance Ability It is the ability to maintain balance during whole body movements and to regain balance quickly after balance disturbing movements.
  6. Rhythm Ability It is the ability to perceive an externally given rhythm and to reproduce it in motor action.
  7. Adaptation Ability It. is the ability to adjust or completely change the movement programme during movement on the basis of changes or anticipated changes in the situation.

CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions 2022 with answers: FAQs

Q. Is NCERT enough for Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education?

Yes, NCERT is more than enough for Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education. The students can practice the CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions given on this page.

Q. Where can I find CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions?

You can find the CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions here. We have given the CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physical Education Important Questions based on the latest CBSE Term 2 Exam pattern on this page.

 

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