CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22: Term 1 and 2

Biology Class 12 Syllabus 2021-22

Biology is an important subject which lays the foundation of students trying to pursue Medical, Biotechnology, Biomedical engineering and other fields related to biology. CBSE class 12 biology syllabus 2021-22 provides an overview of the units and the chapters covered within Biology. The units are further classified into chapters. Class 12 Biology helps the students to have a better grip for the next program they want to pursue. The syllabus helps them to prepare notes and study materials easily. NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology is followed by CBSE and many other State boards. NCERT books are set by the best authors which makes them very reliable for competitive exams like NEET. In addition to this, NCERT Class 12 Biology syllabus is written in an easy language which makes it understandable.

Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22 PDF for Term 1 and Term 2

Biology Syllabus Class 12 2021-22: Mark Distribution Term 1 & Term 2

CBSE Class 12 biology marks distribution will help the students to prepare better for the examinations.

The marks distributed according to the units are as follows:


CBSE Class 12 Syllabus: Unit-wise Marks Distribution
Units Marks
Unit 6: Reproduction 14
Unit 7: Genetics and Evolution 18
Unit 8: Biology and Human Welfare 14
Unit 9: Biotechnology and its Applications 12
Unit 10: Ecology and Environment 12
Total 70


Out of the 100 marks, the remaining 30 marks are covered by the internal assessment which are undertaken by the practical exams. Internal Assessment: Includes practical and viva voice.

Click Here: CBSE Term wise Syllabus 2021-22. (All Subject)


Term 1 Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction in organisms covers the process of reproduction in different organisms. The sub-concepts included are asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, pre fertilization events, fertilization and post fertilization events. The diagrams illustrated in the book provides a better understanding of the concepts.


Unit 4: Reproduction

Chapter 2: Sexual reproduction in Flowering plants

The process of sexual reproduction, structure and morphology of plants are included in the chapter. The sub-concepts involved are pre-fertilization events, double fertilization, post fertilization events and processes such as apomixis and polyembryony.


Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

The chapter covers the human male and female reproductive systems. The diagrams, pictures, illustrations, flowcharts and simple to understand language. The sub-concepts included in the chapter are: Male and female reproductive structures, male reproductive system, female reproductive systems, sex hormones (function and roles), gametogenesis (male and female) and so on.


Chapter 4: Reproductive health

The chapter covers importance of reproductive health and methods to achieve it. The maternal health and health of the infant during different phases of pregnancy are also covered. The sub-concepts involved are: Reproductive health, Birth control (meaning and measures), Medical termination of pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and infertility.


Unit 7: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and variation

The chapter covers the topics Genetics and evolution. Genetics cover similarities and variations in the parents and offsprings. The topic of genetics involve Mendel’s laws of inheritance, inheritance of one and two genes, determination of sex, mutations and some genetic disorders. Evolution covers the origin of life, Darwin’s theory of natural selection, different theories related to evolution, evidences of evolution and so on.


Chapter 6: Molecular basis of Inheritance

The chapter covers diagrams to understand the basic structures of DNA, RNA, replication and so on. The topics are: Structure of DNA including the structure of the polynucleotide chain, packaging of the DNA helix, RNA structure, the process of replication, transcription, types of RNA, genetic code, operon models and human genome project.


Chapter 7: Evolution

The chapter covers the study of history of different life forms on the earth. The origin of life and evolution of the life forms is covered in the chapter. Different flowcharts, illustrations, diagrams displayed in the textbook make the topic easier.


Unit 8: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Health and Diseases

The chapter covers Health which is the maintenance of the body functions, diseases, treatment and prevention. The forms of immunity displayed in the body and their encounter to diseases like AIDS, Cancer, and adolescence issues along with drugs and alcohol abuse are covered in the chapter.


Chapter 9: Strategies for enhancement in food production

The chapter takes into account the biological principles applied to the animal husbandry and plant breeding techniques in increasing the food production. Certain new era techniques such as embryo transfer technology and tissue culture play an important role in enhancing the food production are also included.

Term 2 Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human welfare

Microbes are the microorganisms or the tiny organisms that can only with seen under the microscope. These are tiny living organisms which are invisible to the naked eye and are present in our surroundings. They play an important role in the evolution of the planet earth. The disease-causing organisms are known as pathogens.


Unit 9: Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter 11: Biotechnology: Principles and processes

Biotechnology is the process of integration of natural science and organisms, cells and other parts for products and services. The chapter covers the study of the basic principles involved in the biotechnology, some core techniques involved are genetic engineering and manufacturing of antibiotics, drugs and other vaccines.


Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Applications

The chapter addresses the technique of biotechnology into how human beings have used biotechnology to improve the quality of the life in food production and health. Certain microbes, plants, animals and other metabolic machinery have been provided useful by biotechnology to humans.


Unit 10: Ecology and Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and populations

The chapter goes through the ecology at the levels of organisms and population. The topics such as organisms and environment, niche, major abiotic factors such as regulation, conformation, migration and suspension.


Chapter 14: Ecosystem

Ecosystem is the functional unit of environment where the living organisms interact among themselves and with the surrounding environment. The chapter covers the structure of the ecosystem to appreciate productivity, food chain and the output.


Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

The chapter covers the importance and significance of biodiversity, types, patterns, evolution, degradation and conservation. The topics covered are genetic diversity, species diversity, latitudinal gradients, species area relationship, causes of biodiversity losses, in situ conservation and ex situ conservation.


Chapter 16: Environmental issues

The chapter deals with the problems that are threatening to the environment and disturb the ecological balance in the nature. The effects of pollution on the human life and effect of pollution in day to day life.

Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22: Marks distribution

The theory exam will comprise of 70 marks and 30 marks will be for the internal assessment (Practical and viva voice) making up a total of 100 marks.

Evaluation Scheme Marks
One Major Experiment (5,6) 5
One Minor Experiment (2,3) 4
Slide Preparation Part A (1,4) 5
Spotting Part B 7
Practical record + Viva Voice 4
Practical record + Viva Voice 5


Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22: PRACTICALS Term 1 & 2

The practical exam is of 3 hour for 30 marks.

List of Experiments

  • Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen
  • Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH, and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in
  • Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity, and presence of any living
  • Prepare a temporary mount of the onion root tip to study
  • Study the effect of different temperatures or three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on
  • Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya,


Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

  • Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  • Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  • Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent
  • of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  • Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak, and color
  • Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models, or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they
  • Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  • Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological

CBSE New Syllabus For Class 12 & 11 2021-2022


CBSE New Syllabus Class 9 & 10 For 2021-2022


CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021-22: Term 1 and 2: FAQs

What topics are covered under unit of Biology and Human welfare?

The topics covered are Heath and diseases, strategies for enhancement of food production and microbes in human welfare.


How to download CBSE Class 12 biology syllabus?

Go through the above article to download the CBSE syllabus for class 12 biology 2021.


What is the difference between CBSE and NCERT syllabus for class 12?

NCERT Class 12 syllabus is the foundation syllabus from which CBSE and other state boards derive their syllabus.


How many units and chapters are there in class 12 biology?

NCERT Biology textbook for class 12 consists of total 5 units and 16 chapters.


What are the marks for Practical/project work in class 12 biology?

The maximum marks are 30.


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